Tuesday, August 14, 2012

Brother Primož Trubar and the 'Holy' Mount


...But the creation of idols from them,
to implore them for grace and the pardon for the sins in all the disgraces,
to them to build churches, to give gifts,
this, God, the angels and all the saints severely forbid.
This are teaching us the Holy Scriptures”.

In respect and honor to the mother of Jesus Christ,
whom has been trampled and outraged by Rome
who imposed, in her name,
the pagan idolatry
of infernal deities

     Above image - Sveta Gora (Italian Monte Santo di Gorizia - eng.: Holy Mount) is a village and the famous pilgrimage route to Nova Gorica. The village is situated on the eponymous hill 682 meters high and is considered the most important way of God in western Slovenia. As such, the place is often called the Sveta Gora near Gorizia or the Saint Mount over Solkan or Skalnica. This is otherwise a name for the mountain top.

    At the top stands the Basilica of the Assumption, which is one of seven Slovenian basilica and Franciscan monastery of Sveta Gora. The village next to the church and monastery consists of a few houses. The monastery operates TAU spiritual education center that offers the opportunity for spiritual exercises and support to families, couples and young people in need. On the Sveta Gora the Gorica Museum edited an exhibition "The First World War" (in the lower part of the inn).

From “ Primož Trubar rodoljub ilirski” (“Primož Trubar patriot of Ilirja”) by Jožko Humar

     The cause for the strong attack of Trubar against the building of the church for pilgrims was given by an unknown and absolutely insignificant shepherdess from Grgar near Gorica – Urška Ferligoj [“Gorizia” – It., “Gorz” – Germ., “Gurize” – Friulans - avles]. To her in fact it began “to appear the virgin Mary”. At least she affirmed to the ones who wanted to listen to her, and there were much of such people. The masses of people without faith had pleasure to hear that the holy annunciation is near, but other ones expected from that a considerable profit.

     Firstly let's look what says about that event the oral tradition. From the archive of the monastery at Sveta Gora [Saint Mountain – avles] near Gorica there's a many years later reported script [of the oral tradition] by father Gašper Pasconi who published it in his book written in Latin about Sveta Gora, published in 1764 in Venice.

     “...It was Saturday, a certain Saturday of June in Pentecostal period of the year 1539. Urška Ferligoj from Grgar was attending the herd and praying on the solitary mount Skalnica. Mary with little Jesus on the womb appeared and ordered to her: Tell the people, in order that they could build to me here an house and they could pray to me. Urška went to Gorica and in the surrounding villages in order to spred the desire of Mary. Some insulted her saying she was a swindler, other immediately believed to her - and these ones were many more. The people then was shaken by great excitement.
     "Secular and spiritual authorities couldn't remain with the hands in hands. The secular authority was the first to take measures. The governing count Gabrijel Salamanca, count Ortenburg, ordered to imprison the shepherdess. Mary saved her from prison with a miracle and sent her back to the mountain, where they found her immersed in the preaching near her herd of sheep. This occurred another time and for a third times and also with this new miracle it was demonstrated the truth of the the appearing”.

     Such oral tradition was revealed [“published/notified” in the original text] only two hundreds years after the event. All along the years the history knew many versions. Doesn't matter which version, little after the event on the mount Skalnica – which was [re]named till our days ”Sveta Gora”/“Holy Mountain” - it started the pilgrimage. At the beginning they built a chapel and people started to bring there money and wealth, in order to let the building of a church. “Anton Papež from Gorica and three people from Solkan, Krivec, Bašin and Mihelič, took care for this enterprise and asked the patriarch [of Aquileja/Oglej] the authorization to build a church for pilgrimage on the top of the mount” (J. Gruden: History of the Slovenian people).

     It is not known if the patriarch agreed with those men because he believed to Urška and wanted to respect the desire of Mary or because with the new church for the pilgrimage he would have added new sources for his wealth.

     Trubar, who was readily informed about that, was more inclined to different hypothesis. The ardor of the men from Solkan, Krivec, Bašin and Mihelič was under suspicion because the road to the mount was passing just near the taverns of Solkan.

     The appearing at mount Skalnica was for him an occasion for new attacks against the depravation of the Roman Catholic priesthood, against the bad lords and others who, “because of their stomachs”, they exploit the ignorance of the common people.

     The young Reformer was aware that the “appearances” and the proposals for the building of pilgrimage churches in Slovenia were a mass phenomena. Maybe he looked in the soul of his fellow countrymen/women. After the great Slovenian peasant uprising (1515), which was completely suppressed with cruelty by the feudal power, the people begun to lose trust on himself, on his power. In this world there was no one who could have helped the people. It is not strange that just in that age the people believed in the “miracles” and in the super-natural help.

     Trubar suffered that there were always people who exploited successfully such difficult situations of the Slovenian people. The sufferance generated indignation. Thus the young reformer already perceived his mission. He felt that his worry was aimed not only to his parishioners rather to “all Slovenes”. Similarly acute he addressed the building of the churches for pilgrimage “on the Mount at Gorica, at Gornji grad, under Gradec over Ljubljana, at Silevica, over Lasko, at Brunik, at Kum” or wherevere else in Slovenia.

     Trubar grew from to be a local re-newer to an all-Slovenian social re-newer.

     His preaches against the building of the church on the Skalnica are not conserved. It is more a fact than a possibility that he preached about in such a way, like he later dealt with that event, in whichever moment when it appeared the opportunity to speak about the “false miracles” and “unnecessary pilgrimages”.

    Year 1558 he wrote in such a way:

     “...Just in this way the church on the Holy Mount near Gorica was built on proposal of a certain diabolic woman ..... About that the priests, the bishops and lords keep the silence, because they have from such idolatrous gifts sufficient flesh for their kitchens. But the Devil will all the ones who silence on such sins and swindles and don't preach against them, cook for the eternity in the Hell, at least if they don't repent in time.”

     In the year 1562, making a passing reference, he mentioned:

     “...This church [on Sveta Gora near Gorica] has been built only twenty years ago on incitement of an old sorceress who seems to have aborted three children when she was a girl“.

     Still thirty-six years after, in the year 1575, the memory of his preaches against the building of churches for pilgrimages incited him to write larger and stronger about the event:

     “...The papists in contact with the Devil are defaming us, Lutherans, in front of many people who believe to every void talk, saying that we don't respect the virgin Mary and the saints, that we are offending them and that we are comparing virgin Mary with every woman and prostitute, the saints with idols and the Devil.
     "But we don't teach to not respect and honor the virgin Mary....but the creation of idols from them, to implore them for grace and the pardon for the sins in all the disgraces, to them to build churches, to give gifts, this God, the angels and all the saints severely forbid. This are teaching us the Holy Scriptures.
     "But demons, who assume the image of angels, virgin Mary and saints, appear in front of infidel popes, of bishops, of priests and of monks, old witches and of young prostitutes of the priests and of the monks, order them to be a religious person, to torment themselves, to fall on the ground....and to announce to all the people that now to this one, now to another one saint or to the virgin Mary, now on this one, now on that other mount, on the fields or in the woods they have to build churches, in order they can bring there gifts and celebrate mass, in order that to them, from everywhere, they have to bring there commodities, every kind of livestock; and if they don't do that, the virgin Mary and the saints will destroy with the hail all their wheat-yards and the vineyards, and will kill 'em with the plague.
    "From all that the priests and their prostitutes and the treasurers of the parish churches and the sacristans are living good and quick enrich....
On that, my dear Kranjci and Sloveni [inhabitants of Kranjska county and of Slovenia, I warn you and I please you, recall and ask yourself who, how and when has built all these new churches in our regions in our age and what they are recalling to us....
     "Maybe not all these churches have been built on the incitement of demoniac and untruthful witches, prostitutes and evil people. But to all that strongly contributed, with false witnesses [perjury], the priests, monks, treasurers of the church and sacristans, beccause of their stomachs. These ones falsely witnessed the prodigies, which should have been happened near such churches....
     "Oh you silent dogs, you evil, poor, damned, demoniac priests and monks, you, who because of your stinking stomach allow to the Devil and his servants, to tempt poor and simple people, your sheep....”.

     At the end he – maybe like many years before in Ljubljana – indignantly exclaimed:

     “...Oh you poor, blind, absurd credulity, oh you blind, demoniac, greedy priests and fool, bad lords, you who silence all that.”.

     The preaches of Trubar and the open opposition, about the fact that a new church for pilgrimage should have been built at Skalnica near Gorica, did soon make the patriarchate of Oglej [Aquileja] angry. And found a means in order to prevent Trubar from doing his activity. He relied on his representatives, the archdeacon of Kranjska region and of Dolenjska region. Both, without difficulties, instigated also the Franciscans of Ljubljana, because their church remained almost empty, as the citizens of Ljubljana gone with more pleasure to hear the preaches of the preachers oriented to the new course in the cathedral [the new course = the Reformation]. With joined forces they warned about that the regional head of the Kranjska region Nikolaj Jurisič, trustful supporter and obedient functionary of the king Ferdinand, and to him recalled about the royal decree, which he the same read when, years before, was appointed as governor of the Kranjska region.

    In the decree, among other, it was written: “[in order] he avoids our mercilessness and punishment, the regional governor in his functions in the Kranjska region has to not allow and bear any Lutheran and any new tempting sect, rather, if he discovers one or more persons followers of these sects, he has to proceed against him with the punishment on the basis of our decrees”.

     Jurisič who feared that the patriarch's archdeacon and the Franciscans would have dealt with the king Ferdinand the same, and in consequence he would have lost the honorable job as regional governor, and even his numerous estates in the Kranjska region and in Croatia, soon intervened. But he didn't want to hurt also the citizens of Ljubljana, [he didn't want to hurt] the “heretic” and the well disposed bishop [?], [he didn't want to hurt] the many nobles he knew were they the same proceeding towards protestantism. For this reason he didn't proceeded with the law against Trubar. But, at least, what surely he did, was to silently warn Trubar to abandon Ljubljana. Probably he also threatened him [Trubar] that he could have had also proceeded against him with heavier measures. The same Trubar, later, about those events, wrote:

     “...And when in these my parishes and prebends (Laško, Loka at Radečah and Ljubljana) I started to preach the true significance of the Gospel and Cathechism, I was many time in great danger, high priests and barefooted monks, also Nikolaj Jurisič,governor of the Kranjska region shadowed me...”.

     In consequence of that Trubar decided that it was better for himself and for his work if he temporarily would abandon Ljubljana. In the middle of year 1540 he took refugee in Trieste, where he was courteously as ever welcomed by his benefactor - the bishop Bonomo.

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Above video - ("Heretik 4. del");  from 01:02 to 01:36: 

"....Oh you silent dogs!, you evil!, poor!, damned!, demoniac priests and monks!, you!, who because of your stinking stomach allow to the Devil and his servants to tempt poor and simple people!, your sheep!....” ......:




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    Above image - a map of the Rome's wall and the sancturies of the Queen of Europe, together with the historical preach of Trubar in Gorica year 1563.

See also:

Monday, July 11, 2011

The Queen of Europe and the Rome Wall

Your heart is white

since ancient ages,

It is like a piece of stone. -

It is white, white

at the moonlight.



from your eyes

in the quite evening

and, watch,

we are the remains of a fire,

ancient cemetery,

within us it shines

only chaos.

From "Dialogue with Trubar" - by Srečko Kosovel

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